In particular I quite like these two:
|Researchers rewarded for increased number of citations.||Researchers do work that is relevant and influential.||H-index obsession; list of references no longer included in page limit at many conferences.|
|Teachers rewarded for increased student test scores.||Improve teacher effectiveness.||Teaching to the tests; emphasis on short-term learning.|
Of course, one issue here is that you are trying to measure some seriously intelligent people and here's a very good discussion on managing intelligent people by Scott Berkun - I'm not sure he has all the answers but just acknowledging this is a step to proper understanding.
Finally, a nod to that classic tome of unintended consequences (and the economic theory that drives this): Freakonomics by Levitt and Dubner.